Robot framework libraries

fkromer/awesome-robotframework: A curated list of awesome Robot

Messages with ERROR or WARN level are automatically written to the console and a separate Test Execution Errors section in the log files. This makes these messages more visible than others and allows using them for reporting important but non-critical problems to users.Any test library that is not one of the standard libraries is, by definition, an external library. The Robot Framework open source community has implemented several generic libraries, such as Selenium2Library and SwingLibrary, which are not packaged with the core framework. A list of publicly available libraries can be found from http://robotframework.org.python -m robot.libdoc Dialogs list python -m robot.libdoc Selenium2Library list browser python -m robot.libdoc Remote:: show python -m robot.libdoc Dialogs show PauseExecution execute* python -m robot.libdoc Selenium2Library show intro python -m robot.libdoc Selenium2Library version 5.1.2   Writing documentation This section discusses writing documentation for Python and Java based test libraries that use the static library API as well as for dynamic libraries and resource files. Creating test libraries and resource files is described in more details elsewhere in the User Guide.Robot Framework has a listener interface that can be used to receive notifications about test execution. Example usages include external test monitors, sending a mail message when a test fails, and communicating with other systems. Listener API version 3 also makes it possible to modify tests and results during the test execution.*** Test Cases *** Example I execute "ls" I execute "ls" with "-lh" I type 1 + 2 I type 53 - 11 Today is 2011-06-27 *** Keywords *** I execute "${cmd:[^"]+}" Run Process ${cmd} shell=True I execute "${cmd}" with "${opts}" Run Process ${cmd} ${opts} shell=True I type ${a:\d+} ${operator:[+-]} ${b:\d+} Calculate ${a} ${operator} ${b} Today is ${date:\d{4\}-\d{2\}-\d{2\}} Log ${date} In the above example keyword I execute "ls" with "-lh" matches only I execute "${cmd}" with "${opts}". That is guaranteed because the custom regular expression [^"]+ in I execute "${cmd:[^"]}" means that a matching argument cannot contain any quotes. In this case there is no need to add custom regexps to the other I execute variant.

robot.libraries.OperatingSystem — Robot Framework..

  1. If you have access to the source code of the library you want to extend, you can naturally modify the source code directly. The biggest problem of this approach is that it can be hard for you to update the original library without affecting your changes. For users it may also be confusing to use a library that has different functionality than the original one. Repackaging the library may also be a big extra task.
  2. It is possible to include and exclude test cases by tag names with the --include (-i) and --exclude (-e) options, respectively. If the --include option is used, only test cases having a matching tag are selected, and with the --exclude option test cases having a matching tag are not. If both are used, only tests with a tag matching the former option, and not with a tag matching the latter, are selected.
  3. python -m robot tests.robot python3 -m robot.run tests.robot jython -m robot tests.robot /opt/jython/jython -m robot tests.robot The support for python -m robot approach is a new feature in Robot Framework 3.0, but the older versions support python -m robot.run. The latter must also be used with Python 2.6.
  4. Robot Framework is a Python-based, extensible keyword-driven automation framework for acceptance testing, acceptance test-driven development (ATDD), behavior-driven development (BDD) and robotic process automation (RPA)
  5. Before the Remote library can be imported, the remote server providing the actual keywords must be started. If the server is started before launching the test execution, it is possible to use the normal Library setting like in the above example. Alternatively other keywords, for example from Process or SSH libraries, can start the server up, but then you may need to use Import Library keyword because the library is not available when the test execution starts.
  6. The only Node.js first Desktop Automation Library. The first of its kind. Automate Anything
  7. Suite related variables ${SUITE SOURCE}, ${SUITE NAME}, ${SUITE DOCUMENTATION} and &{SUITE METADATA} are available already when test libraries and variable files are imported, except to Robot Framework 2.8 and 2.8.1 where this support was broken. Possible variables in these automatic variables are not yet resolved at the import time, though.

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Variables in variable files are not limited to having only strings or other base types as values like variable tables. Instead, their variables can contain any objects. In the example below, the variable ${MAPPING} contains a Java Hashtable with two values (this example works only when running tests on Jython).If the enhancement is not generally useful, example solution is domain specific, then the SeleniumLibrary offers a public API’s which can be used to build own plugins and libraries. Plugin API allows to add new keywords, modify existing keywords and modify internal functionality of the library. Also new libraries can be build on top of the SeleniumLibrary. Please see extending documentation for more details about the available methods and for examples how the library can be extended.

*** Test Cases *** One Return Value ${ret} = Return One Value argument Some Keyword ${ret} Multiple Values ${a} ${b} ${c} = Return Three Values @{list} = Return Three Values ${scalar} @{rest} = Return Three Values *** Keywords *** Return One Value [Arguments] ${arg} Do Something ${arg} ${value} = Get Some Value [Return] ${value} Return Three Values [Return] foo bar zap Using special keywords to return BuiltIn keywords Return From Keyword and Return From Keyword If allow returning from a user keyword conditionally in the middle of the keyword. Both of them also accept optional return values that are handled exactly like with the [Return] setting discussed above.When a failure is caused by the tested application, the error message and log messages ought to be enough to understand what caused it. If that is not the case, the test library does not provide enough information and needs to be enhanced. In this situation running the same test manually, if possible, may also reveal more information about the issue.Python classes are always inside a module. If the name of a class implementing a library is the same as the name of the module, Robot Framework allows dropping the class name when importing the library. For example, class MyLib in MyLib.py file can be used as a library with just name MyLib. This also works with submodules so that if, for example, parent.MyLib module has class MyLib, importing it using just parent.MyLib works. If the module name and class name are different, libraries must be taken into use using both module and class names, such as mymodule.MyLibrary or parent.submodule.MyLib.It is a good support for external libraries. Most used is Selenium Library, which is easy to install and use in robot framework.If documentation is split into multiple columns, cells in one row are concatenated together with spaces. This is mainly be useful when using the HTML format and columns are narrow. If documentation is split into multiple rows, the created documentation lines themselves are concatenated using newlines. Newlines are not added if a line already ends with a newline or an escaping backslash.

The test data is in simple, easy-to-edit tabular format. When Robot Framework is started, it processes the test data, executes test cases and generates logs and reports. The core framework does not know anything about the target under test, and the interaction with it is handled by test libraries. Libraries can either use application interfaces directly or use lower level test tools as drivers.Python supports methods accepting any number of arguments. The same syntax works in libraries and, as the examples below show, it can also be combined with other ways of specifying arguments: Next generation robotics framework with support for 43 different platforms. Get Started. Meet The Code. Cylon.js is a JavaScript framework for robotics, physical computing, and the Internet of Things The most common source for variables are Variable tables in test case files and resource files. Variable tables are convenient, because they allow creating variables in the same place as the rest of the test data, and the needed syntax is very simple. Their main disadvantages are that values are always strings and they cannot be created dynamically. If either of these is a problem, variable files can be used instead.On Windows you can configure PATH by following the steps below. Notice that the exact setting names may be different on different Windows versions, but the basic approach should still be the same.

public class MyLibrary { public void hello(String name) { System.out.println("Hello, " + name + "!"); } public void doNothing() { } } The example below illustrates how the example libraries above can be used. If you want to try this yourself, make sure that the library is in the module search path.*** Test Cases *** Example Repeat Keyword 5 Some Keyword arg1 arg2 Repeat Keyword 42 times My Keyword Repeat Keyword ${var} Another Keyword argument 2.8.4   Conditional execution In general, it is not recommended to have conditional logic in test cases, or even in user keywords, because it can make them hard to understand and maintain. Instead, this kind of logic should be in test libraries, where it can be implemented using natural programming language constructs. However, some conditional logic can be useful at times, and even though Robot Framework does not have an actual if/else construct, there are several ways to get the same effect.When an automatic installer is used, Robot Framework source code is copied into a directory containing external Python modules. On UNIX-like operating systems where Python is pre-installed the location of this directory varies. If you have installed the interpreter yourself, it is normally Lib/site-packages under the interpreter installation directory, for example, C:\Python27\Lib\site-packages. The actual Robot Framework code is in a directory named robot.

*** Test Cases *** Constants Login robot secret List Variable Login @{USER} Robot Framework stores its own variables in one internal storage and allows using them as scalars, lists or dictionaries. Using a variable as a list requires its value to be a Python list or list-like object. Robot Framework does not allow strings to be used as lists, but other iterable objects such as tuples or dictionaries are accepted.Also free keyword arguments (**kwargs) works mostly the same way as with other dynamic libraries. First of all, the get_keyword_arguments must return an argument specification that contains **kwargs exactly like with any other dynamic library. The main difference is that remote servers' run_keyword method must have optional third argument that gets the kwargs specified by the user. The third argument must be optional because, for backwards-compatibility reasons, the Remote library passes kwargs to the run_keyword method only when they have been used in the test data.

The documentation for Python libraries that use the static library API is written simply as doc strings for the library class or module and for methods implementing keywords. The first line of the method documentation is considered as a short documentation for the keyword (used, for example, as a tool tip in links in the generated HTML documentation), and it should thus be as describing as possible, but not too long. 4.0.0rc1 pre-release The default error message displayed when a test timeout occurs is Test timeout <time> exceeded. It is also possible to use custom error messages, and these messages are written into the cells after the timeout duration. The message can be split into multiple cells, similarly as documentations. Both the timeout value and the error message may contain variables. The test libraries are used across the Robot Framework. Robot Framework discovers what keywords a library implements, what arguments and documentation these keywords have, and how.. #!/bin/bash cp=. for jar in lib/*.jar; do cp=$cp:$jar done export CLASSPATH=$cp robot --ouputdir /tmp/logs --suitestatlevel 2 $* Implementing this using Windows batch files is slightly more complicated. The difficult part is setting the variable containing the needed JARs inside a For loop, because, for some reason, that is not possible without a helper function.

Web testing library for Robot Framework

import os.path import tempfile class PythonListener: ROBOT_LISTENER_API_VERSION = 2 def __init__(self, filename='listen.txt'): outpath = os.path.join(tempfile.gettempdir(), filename) self.outfile = open(outpath, 'w') def start_suite(self, name, attrs): self.outfile.write("%s '%s'\n" % (name, attrs['doc'])) def start_test(self, name, attrs): tags = ' '.join(attrs['tags']) self.outfile.write("- %s '%s' [ %s ] :: " % (name, attrs['doc'], tags)) def end_test(self, name, attrs): if attrs['status'] == 'PASS': self.outfile.write('PASS\n') else: self.outfile.write('FAIL: %s\n' % attrs['message']) def end_suite(self, name, attrs): self.outfile.write('%s\n%s\n' % (attrs['status'], attrs['message'])) def close(self): self.outfile.close() The following example implements the same functionality as the previous one, but uses Java instead of Python.Depending on where and how they are created, variables can have a global, test suite, test case or local scope.Support for ROBOT_OPTIONS and REBOT_OPTIONS environment variables was added in Robot Framework 2.8.2. pip install robotframework-seleniumlibrary Copy PIP instructions In Python a method has always exactly one implementation and possible default values are specified in the method signature. The syntax, which is familiar to all Python programmers, is illustrated below:

robot --extension robot path/to/tests robot --extension ROBOT:TXT path/to/tests If files in one format use different extensions like *.html and *.htm, you need to specify those extensions separately. Using just one of them would mean that other files in that format are skipped.def one_default(arg='default'): print "Argument has value %s" % arg def multiple_defaults(arg1, arg2='default 1', arg3='default 2'): print "Got arguments %s, %s and %s" % (arg1, arg2, arg3) The first example keyword above can be used either with zero or one arguments. If no arguments are given, arg gets the value default. If there is one argument, arg gets that value, and calling the keyword with more than one argument fails. In the second example, one argument is always required, but the second and the third one have default values, so it is possible to use the keyword with one to three arguments.With library keywords, the long format means only using the format LibraryName.Keyword Name. For example, the keyword Run from the OperatingSystem library could be used as OperatingSystem.Run, even if there was another Run keyword somewhere else. If the library is in a module or package, the full module or package name must be used (for example, com.company.Library.Some Keyword). If a custom name is given to a library using the WITH NAME syntax, the specified name must be used also in the full keyword name.What arguments a keyword accepts depends on what get_keyword_arguments returns for it. If the last argument starts with **, that keyword is recognized to accept kwargs.

public interface RobotFrameworkDynamicAPI { List<String> getKeywordNames(); Object runKeyword(String name, List arguments); Object runKeyword(String name, List arguments, Map kwargs); List<String> getKeywordArguments(String name); String getKeywordDocumentation(String name); } NoteWhen parallel execution is needed, it must be implemented in test library level so that the library executes the code on background. Typically this means that the library needs a keyword like Start Something that starts the execution and returns immediately, and another keyword like Get Results From Something that waits until the result is available and returns it. See OperatingSystem library keywords Start Process and Read Process Output for an example. To use Robot Framework with Python, you need to install Python, robot framework, Selenium2Library and other supporting libraries Developed and maintained by the Python community, for the Python community. Donate today! --tagdoc mytag:My_documentation --tagdoc regression:*See*_http://info.html --tagdoc owner-*:Original_author 3.5.5   Removing and flattening keywords Most of the content of output files comes from keywords and their log messages. When creating higher level reports, log files are not necessarily needed at all, and in that case keywords and their messages just take space unnecessarily. Log files themselves can also grow overly large, especially if they contain for loops or other constructs that repeat certain keywords multiple times.

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robot --flattenkeywords name:HugeKeyword --flattenkeywords name:resource.* tests.robot rebot --flattenkeywords foritem --output flattened.xml original.xml Flattening keywords is done already when the output file is parsed initially. This can save a significant amount of memory especially with deeply nested keyword structures.It is often useful that some of the arguments that a keyword uses have default values. Python and Java have different syntax for handling default values to methods, and the natural syntax of these languages can be used when creating test libraries for Robot Framework.The simplest possible variable assignment is setting a string into a scalar variable. This is done by giving the variable name (including ${}) in the first column of the Variable table and the value in the second one. If the second column is empty, an empty string is set as a value. Also an already defined variable can be used in the value.Workflow tests, such as the Valid Login test described earlier, are constructed from several keywords and their possible arguments. Their normal structure is that first the system is taken into the initial state (Open Login Page in the Valid Login example), then something is done to the system (Input Name, Input Password, Submit Credentials), and finally it is verified that the system behaved as expected (Welcome Page Should Be Open).

Creating Libraries Resource File Keywords in Selenium Robot

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Logged tracebacks do not contain information about methods inside Robot Framework itself. If you suspect an error is caused by a bug in the framework, you can enable showing internal traces by setting environment variable ROBOT_INTERNAL_TRACES to any non-empty value. This functionality is new in Robot Framework 2.9.2.When the get_keyword_arguments is used, Robot Framework automatically calculates how many positional arguments the keyword requires and does it support free keyword arguments or not. If a keyword is used with invalid arguments, an error occurs and run_keyword is not even called.It is possible to disable dry run validation of specific user keywords by adding a special robot:no-dry-run keyword tag to them. This is useful if a keyword fails in the dry run mode for some reason, but work fine when executed normally. Disabling the dry run more is a new feature in Robot Framework 3.0.2.One of the benefits of the dynamic API is that you have more flexibility in organizing your library. With the static API, you must have all keywords in one class or module, whereas with the dynamic API, you can, for example, implement each keyword as a separate class

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  1. *** Test Cases *** Valid Login Open Login Page Input Username demo Input Password mode Submit Credentials Welcome Page Should Be Open Setting Variables Do Something first argument second argument ${value} = Get Some Value Should Be Equal ${value} Expected value Note
  2. Acceptance testing automation for django web and REST applications using a robot testing Django rest-framework passes extra context data to serializers for the best design of rest applications. we..
  3. Templates are available in HTML format and TSV format and they can be customized freely. There are no templates for the plain text format because it requires so little boilerplate that templates would not be very useful.
  4. All test cases are considered critical by default, but this can be changed with the --critical (-c) and --noncritical (-n) options. These options specify which tests are critical based on tags, similarly as --include and --exclude are used to select tests by tags. If only --critical is used, test cases with a matching tag are critical. If only --noncritical is used, tests without a matching tag are critical. Finally, if both are used, only test with a critical tag but without a non-critical tag are critical.

When a deeper suite structure is executed, showing all the test suite levels in the Statistics by Suite table may make the table somewhat difficult to read. By default all suites are shown, but you can control this with the command line option --suitestatlevel which takes the level of suites to show as an argument:pip uninstall robotframework A nice feature in pip is that it can uninstall packages even if they are installed from the source. If you do not have pip available or have done a manual installation to a custom location, you need to find where files are installed and remove them manually.It is also possible to skip teardowns when execution is stopped by using --skipteardownonexit option. This can be useful if, for example, clean-up tasks take a lot of time.*** Settings *** Library ExampleLibrary @{LIB ARGS} # This works Library ${LIBRARY} @{LIB ARGS} # This works Library @{NAME AND ARGS} # This does not work Suite Setup Some Keyword @{KW ARGS} # This works Suite Setup ${KEYWORD} @{KW ARGS} # This works Suite Setup @{KEYWORD} # This does not work Default Tags @{TAGS} # This works Dictionary variables As discussed above, a variable containing a list can be used as a list variable to pass list items to a keyword as individual arguments. Similarly a variable containing a Python dictionary or a dictionary-like object can be used as a dictionary variable like &{EXAMPLE}. In practice this means that individual items of the dictionary are passed as named arguments to the keyword. Assuming that a variable &{USER} has value {'name': 'robot', 'password': 'secret'}, the following two test cases are equivalent.The coercion is done for arguments that have the same or compatible type across all the signatures of the keyword method. In the following example, the conversion can be done for keywords doubleArgument and compatibleTypes, but not for conflictingTypes.

Test libraries contain lowest-level keywords, often called library keywords, which actually interact with the system under test.Keywords can be deprecated by starting their documentation with text *DEPRECATED, case-sensitive, and having a closing * also on the first line of the documentation. For example, *DEPRECATED*, *DEPRECATED.*, and *DEPRECATED in version 1.5.* are all valid markers.Custom libraries can be implemented based on requirements specific. Example: SeleniumLibrary and SwingLibraryRobot Framework requires reST files containing non-ASCII characters to be saved using UTF-8 encoding.

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Some modern robots also have the ability to learn in a limited capacity. Learning robots recognize if a certain action (moving its legs in a certain way, for instance) achieved a desired result (navigating an.. Robot Framework 3.0 is the first Robot Framework version to support Python 3. It supports also Python 2, and the plan is to continue Python 2 support as long as Python 2 itself is officially supported. We hope that authors of the libraries and tools in the wider Robot Framework ecosystem also start looking at Python 3 support now that the core framework supports it.

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Robot Framework

Robot Framework - Overview - Tutorialspoint Libraries

public void exampleKeyword(Map<String, String> stuff): for (String key: stuff.keySet()) System.out.println(key + " " + stuff.get(key)); public void variousArgs(String arg, List<String> varargs, Map<String, Object> kwargs): System.out.println("arg: " + arg); for (String varg: varargs) System.out.println("vararg: " + varg); for (String key: kwargs.keySet()) System.out.println("kwarg: " + key + " " + kwargs.get(key)); Noterebot --merge --name Example --critical regression original.xml merged.xml How merging works in practice is explained in the following sections discussing its two main use cases.It has simple plain text syntax and it can be extended easily with libraries implemented using Python or Java and it utilizes the keyword-driven testing approachIt is possible to use variables in both named argument names and values. If the value is a single scalar variable, it is passed to the keyword as-is. This allows using any objects, not only strings, as values also when using the named argument syntax. For example, calling a keyword like arg=${object} will pass the variable ${object} to the keyword without converting it to a string.robot tests.robot robot path/to/my_tests/ robot c:\robot\tests.robot It is also possible to give paths to several test case files or directories at once, separated with spaces. In this case, Robot Framework creates the top-level test suite automatically, and the specified files and directories become its child test suites. The name of the created test suite is got from child suite names by catenating them together with an ampersand (&) and spaces. For example, the name of the top-level suite in the first example below is My Tests & Your Tests. These automatically created names are often quite long and complicated. In most cases, it is thus better to use the --name option for overriding it, as in the second example below:

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============================================================================== Example test suite ============================================================================== First test :: Possible test documentation | PASS | ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ Second test | FAIL | Error message is displayed here ============================================================================== Example test suite | FAIL | 2 critical tests, 1 passed, 1 failed 2 tests total, 1 passed, 1 failed ============================================================================== Output: /path/to/output.xml Report: /path/to/report.html Log: /path/to/log.html Starting from Robot Framework 2.7, there is also a notification on the console whenever a top-level keyword in a test case ends. A green dot is used if a keyword passes and a red F if it fails. These markers are written to the end of line and they are overwritten by the test status when the test itself ends. Writing the markers is disabled if console output is redirected to a file.The Setting table is used to import test libraries, resource files and variable files and to define metadata for test suites and test cases. It can be included in test case files and resource files. Note that in a resource file, a Setting table can only include settings for importing libraries, resources, and variables.If several resource files have a user keyword with the same name, they must be used so that the keyword name is prefixed with the resource file name without the extension (for example, myresources.Some Keyword and common.Some Keyword). Moreover, if several resource files contain the same variable, the one that is imported first is taken into use.

robotframework/robotframework - Libraries

*** Keywords *** Any Number Of Arguments [Arguments] @{varargs} Log Many @{varargs} One Or More Arguments [Arguments] ${required} @{rest} Log Many ${required} @{rest} Required, Default, Varargs [Arguments] ${req} ${opt}=42 @{others} Log Required: ${req} Log Optional: ${opt} Log Others: : FOR ${item} IN @{others} \ Log ${item} Notice that if the last keyword above is used with more than one argument, the second argument ${opt} always gets the given value instead of the default value. This happens even if the given value is empty. The last example also illustrates how a variable number of arguments accepted by a user keyword can be used in a for loop. This combination of two rather advanced functions can sometimes be very useful.*** Variables *** ${NAME} = Robot Framework ${VERSION} = 2.0 If a scalar variable has a long value, it can be split to multiple columns and rows. By default cells are catenated together using a space, but this can be changed by having SEPARATOR=<sep> in the first cell.Installing Jython is a fairly easy procedure, and the first step is getting an installer from http://jython.org. The installer is an executable JAR package, which you can run from the command line like java -jar jython_installer-<version>.jar. Depending on the system configuration, it may also be possible to just double-click the installer.

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  1. SeleniumLibrary has over the years lived under SeleniumLibrary and Selenium2Library names and different library versions have supported different Selenium and Python versions. This is summarized in the table below and the History section afterwards explains the project history a bit more.
  2. rebot --starttime 20080611-17:59:20.495 output1.xml output2.xml rebot --starttime 20080611-175920 --endtime 20080611-180242 *.xml rebot --starttime 20110302-1317 --endtime 20110302-11418 myoutput.xml 3.5.7   Programmatic modification of results If the provided built-in features to modify results are are not enough, Robot Framework 2.9 and newer provide a possible to do custom modifications programmatically. This is accomplished by creating a model modifier and activating it using the --prerebotmodifier option.
  3. robot --listener MyListener tests.robot robot --listener com.company.package.Listener tests.robot robot --listener path/to/MyListener.py tests.robot robot --listener module.Listener --listener AnotherListener tests.robot It is also possible to give arguments to listener classes from the command line. Arguments are specified after the listener name (or path) using a colon (:) as a separator. If a listener is given as an absolute Windows path, the colon after the drive letter is not considered a separator. Starting from Robot Framework 2.8.7, it is possible to use a semicolon (;) as an alternative argument separator. This is useful if listener arguments themselves contain colons, but requires surrounding the whole value with quotes on UNIX-like operating systems:
  4. It is possible to use the --loglevel option also when post-processing outputs with Rebot. This allows, for example, running tests initially with the TRACE level, and generating smaller log files for normal viewing later with the INFO level. By default all the messages included during execution will be included also with Rebot. Messages ignored during the execution cannot be recovered.
  5. Requires: Python >=2.7.*, !=3.0.*, !=3.1.*, !=3.2.*, !=3.3.*, !=3.4.*, !=3.5.*, <4
  6. All keywords the library have automatically create link targets and they can be linked using syntax `Keyword Name`. This is illustrated with the example below where both keywords have links to each others.
  7. Data can be given as a single file, directory, or as multiple files and directories. In all these cases, the last argument must be the file where to write the output.

Robot Development Platforms Part 1: Frameworks and Libraries

  1. The package is named robotframework-<version>.jar and it is available on the Maven central. After downloading the package, you can execute tests with it like:
  2. Variables set with Set Global Variable keyword are globally available in all test cases and suites executed after setting them. Setting variables with this keyword thus has the same effect as creating from the command line using the options --variable or --variablefile. Because this keyword can change variables everywhere, it should be used with care.
  3. The most common and also the simplest situation is when a keyword needs an exact number of arguments. In this case, both the Python and Java methods simply take exactly those arguments. For example, a method implementing a keyword with no arguments takes no arguments either, a method implementing a keyword with one argument also takes one argument, and so on.
  4. It has always been possible to use keywords like Select dog from list and Selects cat from list, but all such keywords must have been implemented separately. The idea of embedding arguments into the keyword name is that all you need is a keyword with name like Select ${animal} from list.
  5. export ROBOT_OPTIONS="--critical regression --tagdoc 'mytag:Example doc with spaces'" robot tests.robot export REBOT_OPTIONS="--reportbackground green:yellow:red" rebot --name example output.xml Note
  6. If the error message is longer than 40 lines, it will be automatically cut from the middle to prevent reports from getting too long and difficult to read. The full error message is always shown in the log message of the failed keyword.
  7. def example_keyword(argument): """*DEPRECATED!!* Use keyword `Other Keyword` instead. This keyword does something to given ``argument`` and returns results. """ return do_something(argument) 20080911 16:00:22.650 WARN Keyword 'SomeLibrary.Example Keyword' is deprecated. Use keyword `Other Keyword` instead. This deprecation system works with most test libraries and also with user keywords. The only exception are keywords implemented in a Java test library that uses the static library interface because their documentation is not available at runtime. With such keywords, it possible to use user keywords as wrappers and deprecate them.

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Merged results must always have same top-level test suite. Tests and suites in merged outputs that are not found from the original output are added into the resulting output. How this works in practice is discussed in the next section.Adding additional test libraries or support code to the Robot Framework jar is quite straightforward using the jar command included in standard JDK installation. Python code must be placed in Lib directory inside the jar and Java code can be placed directly to the root of the jar, according to package structure.

1.1.1   Why Robot Framework?

jython -J-Xmx1024m -m robot tests.robot 3.1.8   Debugging problems A test case can fail because the system under test does not work correctly, in which case the test has found a bug, or because the test itself is buggy. The error message explaining the failure is shown on the command line output and in the report file, and sometimes the error message alone is enough to pinpoint the problem. More often that not, however, log files are needed because they have also other log messages and they show which keyword actually failed.YAML support is new in Robot Framework 2.9. Starting from version 2.9.2, the standalone JAR distribution has PyYAML included by default.

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  1. Criticality set when tests are executed is not stored anywhere. If you want to keep same criticality when post-processing outputs with Rebot, you need to use --critical and/or --noncritical also with it:
  2. Extended variable syntax allows accessing attributes of an object assigned to a variable (for example, ${object.attribute}) and even calling its methods (for example, ${obj.getName()}). It works both with scalar and list variables, but is mainly useful with the former
  3. If a suite setup fails, all test cases in it and its child test suites are immediately assigned a fail status and they are not actually executed. This makes suite setups ideal for checking preconditions that must be met before running test cases is possible.
  4. def any_arguments(*args): print "Got arguments:" for arg in args: print arg def one_required(required, *others): print "Required: %s\nOthers:" % required for arg in others: print arg def also_defaults(req, def1="default 1", def2="default 2", *rest): print req, def1, def2, rest *** Test Cases *** Varargs Any Arguments Any Arguments argument Any Arguments arg 1 arg 2 arg 3 arg 4 arg 5 One Required required arg One Required required arg another arg yet another Also Defaults required Also Defaults required these two have defaults Also Defaults 1 2 3 4 5 6 Variable number of arguments with Java Robot Framework supports Java varargs syntax for defining variable number of arguments. For example, the following two keywords are functionally identical to the above Python examples with same names:
  5. Robot Framework offers several command line options for selecting which test cases to execute. The same options also work when post-processing outputs with Rebot.
  6. Repeating same actions several times is quite a common need in test automation. With Robot Framework, test libraries can have any kind of loop constructs, and most of the time loops should be implemented in them. Robot Framework also has its own for loop syntax, which is useful, for example, when there is a need to repeat keywords from different libraries.

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1.1.2   High-level architecture

In addition to that, non-breaking spaces are replaced with normal spaces. This is done to avoid hard-to-debug errors when a non-breaking space is accidentally used instead of a normal space.*** Test Cases *** Env Variables Log Current user: %{USER} Run %{JAVA_HOME}${/}javac Java system properties When running tests with Jython, it is possible to access Java system properties using same syntax as environment variables. If an environment variable and a system property with same name exist, the environment variable will be used.Escaping using the backslash character works normally in this format. No double escaping is needed like when using reST tables.*** Keywords *** One Argument [Arguments] ${arg_name} Log Got argument ${arg_name} Three Arguments [Arguments] ${arg1} ${arg2} ${arg3} Log 1st argument: ${arg1} Log 2nd argument: ${arg2} Log 3rd argument: ${arg3} Default values with user keywords When creating user keywords, positional arguments are sufficient in most situations. It is, however, sometimes useful that keywords have default values for some or all of their arguments. Also user keywords support default values, and the needed new syntax does not add very much to the already discussed basic syntax.This approach works well when you start to use a new library and want to add custom enhancements to it from the beginning. Otherwise other mechanisms explained in this section are probably better.

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java -jar robotframework-3.0.jar mytests.robot java -jar robotframework-3.0.jar --variable name:value mytests.robot If you want to post-process outputs using Rebot or use other built-in supporting tools, you need to give the command name rebot, libdoc, testdoc or tidy as the first argument to the JAR file: The Robot Framework test automation framework was designed to help users automate software tests quickly and easily. By adding Sauce Labs to the mix.. # Specify the modifier as a path. Run every second test. robot --prerunmodifier path/to/SelectEveryXthTest.py:2 tests.robot # Specify the modifier as a name. Run every third test, starting from the second. robot --prerunmodifier SelectEveryXthTest:3:1 tests.robot Example: Exclude tests by name Also the second example removes tests, this time based on a given name pattern. In practice it works like a negative version of the built-in --test option.java -cp lib/testlibrary.jar:lib/app.jar:robotframework-2.9.jar org.robotframework.RobotFramework tests.robot java -Xbootclasspath/a:lib/testlibrary.jar:lib/app.jar -jar robotframework-2.9.jar tests.robot 3.4.6   Setting variables Variables can be set from the command line either individually using the --variable (-v) option or through variable files with the --variablefile (-V) option. Variables and variable files are explained in separate chapters, but the following examples illustrate how to use these options:*** Settings *** Variables myvariables.py Variables ../data/variables.py Variables ${RESOURCES}/common.py Variables taking_arguments.py arg1 ${ARG2} All variables from a variable file are available in the test data file that imports it. If several variable files are imported and they contain a variable with the same name, the one in the earliest imported file is taken into use. Additionally, variables created in Variable tables and set from the command line override variables from variable files.

*** Test Cases *** Using backslash Do Something first arg \ Using ${EMPTY} Do Something first arg ${EMPTY} Non-trailing empty Do Something ${EMPTY} second arg # Escaping needed in space separated format For loop :FOR ${var} IN @{VALUES} \ Log ${var} # Escaping needed here too Prevent ignoring spaces Because leading, trailing, and consecutive spaces in cells are ignored, they need to be escaped if they are needed as arguments to keywords or otherwise. Similarly as when preventing ignoring empty cells, it is possible to do that either using the backslash character or using built-in variable ${SPACE}.*INFO:1308435758660* Message with timestamp *HTML:1308435758661* <b>HTML</b> message with timestamp As illustrated by the examples below, adding the timestamp is easy both using Python and Java. If you are using Python, it is, however, even easier to get accurate timestamps using the programmatic logging APIs. A big benefit of adding timestamps explicitly is that this approach works also with the remote library interface.Variables set with Set Suite Variable keyword are available everywhere within the scope of the currently executed test suite. Setting variables with this keyword thus has the same effect as creating them using the Variable table in the test data file or importing them from variable files. Other test suites, including possible child test suites, will not see variables set with this keyword. Official Robot Framework libraries are included for convenience, just in case library import mechanism is not working for some reasons. This could be the case for example if using the RF Jar.. *** Test Cases *** Assign Multiple ${a} ${b} ${c} = Get Three ${first} @{rest} = Get Three @{before} ${last} = Get Three ${begin} @{middle} ${end} = Get Three Assuming that the keyword Get Three returns a list [1, 2, 3], the following variables are created:

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1.1.3   Screenshots

variables1 = {'scalar': 'Scalar variable', 'LIST__list': ['List','variable']} variables2 = {'scalar' : 'Some other value', 'LIST__list': ['Some','other','value'], 'extra': 'variables1 does not have this at all'} def get_variables(arg): if arg == 'one': return variables1 else: return variables2 Implementing variable file as Python or Java class Starting from Robot Framework 2.7, it is possible to implement variables files as Python or Java classes.*** Keywords *** Settings tags using separate setting [Tags] my fine tags No Operation Settings tags using documentation [Documentation] I have documentation. And my documentation has tags. ... Tags: my, fine, tags No Operation Keyword tags are shown in logs and in documentation generated by Libdoc, where the keywords can also be searched based on tags. The --removekeywords and --flattenkeywords commandline options also support selecting keywords by tag, and new usages for keywords tags are possibly added in later releases.The escape character in Robot Framework test data is the backslash (\) and additionally built-in variables ${EMPTY} and ${SPACE} can often be used for escaping. Different escaping mechanisms are discussed in the sections below.In addition to the Python standard library and Robot Framework modules, the standalone JAR versions starting from 2.9.2 also contain the PyYAML dependency needed to handle yaml variable files.Starting from version 2.9, you can also provide any list like object of instances in the ROBOT_LIBRARY_LISTENER attribute. This will cause all instances of the list to be registered as listeners.

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class MyObject: def __init__(self, name): self.name = name def eat(self, what): return '%s eats %s' % (self.name, what) def __str__(self): return self.name OBJECT = MyObject('Robot') DICTIONARY = {1: 'one', 2: 'two', 3: 'three'} *** Test Cases *** Example KW 1 ${OBJECT.name} KW 2 ${OBJECT.eat('Cucumber')} KW 3 ${DICTIONARY[2]} When this test data is executed, the keywords get the arguments as explained below:--escape space:_ --metadata X:Value_with_spaces -E space:SP -E quot:QU -E comma:CO -E exclam:EX -v VAR:QUHelloCOSPworldEXQU Note that all the given command line arguments, including paths to test data, are escaped. Escape character sequences thus need to be selected carefully.Test suites and test cases can be selected by their names with the command line options --suite (-s) and --test (-t), respectively. Both of these options can be used several times to select several test suites or cases. Arguments to these options are case- and space-insensitive, and there can also be simple patterns matching multiple names. If both the --suite and --test options are used, only test cases in matching suites with matching names are selected. 3.0.0a1 pre-release

Possible un-escaped whitespace character after the \n is ignored. This means that two lines\nhere and two lines\n here are equivalent. The motivation for this is to allow wrapping long lines containing newlines when using the HTML format, but the same logic is used also with other formats. An exception to this rule is that the whitespace character is not ignored inside the extended variable syntax.The settings in the Test Case table are always specific to the test case for which they are defined. Some of these settings override the default values defined in the Settings table.

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Embedded arguments do not support default values or variable number of arguments like normal arguments do. Using variables when calling these keywords is possible but that can reduce readability. Notice also that embedded arguments only work with user keywords.XUnit result files contain the test execution summary in xUnit compatible XML format. These files can thus be used as an input for external tools that understand xUnit reports. For example, Jenkins continuous integration server supports generating statistics based on xUnit compatible results."""Pre-run modifier that selects only every Xth test for execution. Starts from the first test by default. Tests are selected per suite. """ from robot.api import SuiteVisitor class SelectEveryXthTest(SuiteVisitor): def __init__(self, x, start=0): self.x = int(x) self.start = int(start) def start_suite(self, suite): """Modify suite's tests to contain only every Xth.""" suite.tests = suite.tests[self.start::self.x] def end_suite(self, suite): """Remove suites that are empty after removing tests.""" suite.suites = [s for s in suite.suites if s.test_count > 0] def visit_test(self, test): """Avoid visiting tests and their keywords to save a little time.""" pass If the above pre-run modifier is in a file SelectEveryXthTest.py and the file is in the module search path, it could be used like this:Another major use case for the dynamic API is implementing a library so that it works as proxy for an actual library possibly running on some other process or even on another machine. This kind of a proxy library can be very thin, and because keyword names and all other information is got dynamically, there is no need to update the proxy when new keywords are added to the actual library.

If the library is a file, the path to it must contain extension. For Python libraries the extension is naturally .py and for Java libraries it can either be .class or .java, but the class file must always be available. If Python library is implemented as a directory, the path to it must have a trailing forward slash (/). Following examples demonstrate these different usages.public void exampleKeyword() { System.out.println("*INFO:" + System.currentTimeMillis() + "* Message with timestamp"); } Logging to console If libraries need to write something to the console they have several options. As already discussed, warnings and all messages written to the standard error stream are written both to the log file and to the console. Both of these options have a limitation that the messages end up to the console only after the currently executing keyword finishes. A bonus is that these approaches work both with Python and Java based libraries.*** Test Cases *** List Variable Item Login @{USER}[0] @{USER}[1] Title Should Be Welcome @{USER}[0]! Negative Index Log @{LIST}[-1] Index As Variable Log @{LIST}[${INDEX}] Using list variables with settings List variables can be used only with some of the settings. They can be used in arguments to imported libraries and variable files, but library and variable file names themselves cannot be list variables. Also with setups and teardowns list variable can not be used as the name of the keyword, but can be used in arguments. With tag related settings they can be used freely. Using scalar variables is possible in those places where list variables are not supported.

A suite teardown is normally used for cleaning up after all the test cases have been executed. It is executed even if the setup of the same suite fails. If the suite teardown fails, all test cases in the suite are marked failed, regardless of their original execution status. Note that all the keywords in suite teardowns are executed even if one of them fails.On many UNIX-like machines you can use handy $COLUMNS environment variable like --consolewidth $COLUMNS.

Variables set in the command line have the highest priority of all variables that can be set before the actual test execution starts. They override possible variables created in Variable tables in test case files, as well as in resource and variable files imported in the test data.Open in app Become a memberSign inAutomation using Robot FrameworkSelvakumar SubramanianFollowAug 7, 2019 · 4 min readA lot more to discuss Robot Framework, but here I am trying to highlight only the important topics for future deep dive.[file.html|this file] -> <a href="file.html">this file</a> [http://host|that host] -> <a href="http://host">that host</a> Link with image content If content is an image, you get a link where the link content is an image. Link target is created by link and it can be either text or image:Resource files are imported using the Resource setting in the Settings table. The path to the resource file is given in the cell after the setting name.*** Settings *** Library MyLibrary 8080 Library AnotherLib ${VAR} Example implementations, first one in Python and second in Java, for the libraries used in the above example:

An important feature in Rebot is its ability to combine outputs from different test execution rounds. This capability allows, for example, running the same test cases on different environments and generating an overall report from all outputs. Combining outputs is extremely easy, all that needs to be done is giving several output files as arguments:This API is very similar to the pre-Rebot modifier API that can be used to modify results before report and log are generated. The main difference is that listeners modify also the created output.xml file.How to set the https_proxy depends on the operating system similarly as configuring PATH. The value of this variable must be an URL of the proxy, for example, Framework itself is written with Python and naturally test libraries extending it can be implemented using the same language. When running the framework on Jython, libraries can also be implemented using Java. Pure Python code works both on Python and Jython, assuming that it does not use syntax or modules that are not available on Jython. When using Python, it is also possible to implement libraries with C using Python C API, although it is often easier to interact with C code from Python libraries using ctypes module.Because xUnit reports do not have the concept of non-critical tests, all tests in an xUnit report will be marked either passed or failed, with no distinction between critical and non-critical tests. If this is a problem, --xunitskipnoncritical option can be used to mark non-critical tests as skipped. Skipped tests will get a message containing the actual status and possible message of the test case in a format like FAIL: Error message.

How a remote server can be stopped depends on how it is implemented. Typically servers support the following methods:The given documentation is shown with matching tags in the Test Details by Tag table, and as a tool tip for these tags in the Statistics by Tag table. If one tag gets multiple documentations, they are combined together and separated with an ampersand.If the log file still does not have enough information, it is a good idea to enable the syslog and see what information it provides. It is also possible to add some keywords to the test cases to see what is going on. Especially BuiltIn keywords Log and Log Variables are useful. If nothing else works, it is always possible to search help from mailing lists or elsewhere.

Starting from Robot Framework 2.8.3, also Java libraries support the free keyword arguments syntax. Java itself has no kwargs syntax, but keywords can have java.util.Map as the last argument to specify that they accept kwargs.Variables set in this manner are otherwise similar to any other variables, but they are available only in the local scope where they are created. Thus it is not possible, for example, to set a variable like this in one test case and use it in another. This is because, in general, automated test cases should not depend on each other, and accidentally setting a variable that is used elsewhere could cause hard-to-debug errors. If there is a genuine need for setting a variable in one test case and using it in another, it is possible to use BuiltIn keywords as explained in the next section.

Similarly as with the TSV test data, plain text files are always expected to use UTF-8 encoding. As a consequence also ASCII files are supported.On UNIX-like systems you typically need to edit either some system wide or user specific configuration file. Which file to edit and how depends on the system, and you need to consult your operating system documentation for more details.Robot Framework is a Python-based, extensible keyword-driven test automation framework for end-to-end acceptance testing and acceptance-test-driven development (ATDD). It can be used for testing distributed, heterogeneous applications, where verification requires touching several technologies and interfaces.Keywords may be problematic in situations where they take exceptionally long to execute or just hang endlessly. Robot Framework allows you to set timeouts both for test cases and user keywords, and if a test or keyword is not finished within the specified time, the keyword that is currently being executed is forcefully stopped. Stopping keywords in this manner may leave the library or system under test to an unstable state, and timeouts are recommended only when there is no safer option available. In general, libraries should be implemented so that keywords cannot hang or that they have their own timeout mechanism, if necessary.

Python virtual environments allow Python packages to be installed in an isolated location for a particular system or application, rather than installing all packages into the same global location. Virtual environments can be created using the virtualenv tool or, starting from Python 3.3, using the standard venv module.Download the file for your platform. If you're not sure which to choose, learn more about installing packages.pypy -m ensurepip pypy3 -m ensurepip If you have multiple Python versions with pip installed, the version that is used when the pip command is executed depends on which pip is first in the PATH. An alternative is executing the pip module using PyPy directly:Prior to Robot Framework 2.8 named argument syntax did not work with test libraries using the dynamic library API.from robot.api.deco import keyword class DynamicExample: def get_keyword_names(self): return [name for name in dir(self) if hasattr(getattr(self, name), 'robot_name')] def helper_method(self): # ... @keyword def keyword_method(self): # ... Running keywords Dynamic libraries have a special run_keyword (alias runKeyword) method for executing their keywords. When a keyword from a dynamic library is used in the test data, Robot Framework uses the library's run_keyword method to get it executed. This method takes two or three arguments. The first argument is a string containing the name of the keyword to be executed in the same format as returned by get_keyword_names. The second argument is a list or array of arguments given to the keyword in the test data.

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